ALL IP by the short hairs-Part 1

all-ipIf we were to summarize the current situation in the ALL IP market, we would see that the migration from ISDN to ALL IP has reached a stage where the number of IP-based telephone connections has exceeded other fixed-line connections such as analog or ISDN. In contrast to other VoIP/SIP providers, Germany’s largest carrier has not been able to offer SIP trunk connections in the last year, thus many business customers could not migrate from ISDN point-to-point connections to ALL IP.  Another important point to mention is that the offer of cloud-based ICT solutions has increased therefore migration to ALL IP is even possible for non-office environments.

Despite the progress concerning switching to ALL-IP, there are still a few issues to face. Especially the transformation of ISDN features to ALL-IP based connections draws a lot of attention. How to migrate ISDN PBXs in use into the new world of ALL IP or the choice of the IP-based solution are two of the key issues about ALL IP. Quality as a matter of fact means often, how symmetrical/similar is “new” compared to “old”. Thereby, it is just  as  interesting as important to take a closer look into the systems which should operate between the company’s network and the public network. Those systems which have to cover a broad spectrum of different tasks and at the same time have to be easy to use.

Especially in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) segment, systems with a large number of features are often found. This means, in addition to broadband Internet access, a number of further functionalities and technologies are introduced, such as integrated Wi-Fi besides the possibility of managing additional Wi-Fi Access Points as a cloud solution. Backup for the primary Internet access by additional wired broadband accesses and by wireless mobile solutions become increasingly common. Furthermore, the firmware offers more and more technical characteristics such as VPN for site networking or comprehensive telephone features. Quality of Service – QoS plays a central role. This feature chooses between all competing data streams, which data packages should be prioritized by means of a sophisticated set of rules.

On the whole, the systems’ complexity and the requirement to cope with more and more tasks at the same time increase. On the other hand, in the course of migration to ALL IP, a wide range of providers try to reduce their service time and effort for installation and integration as much as possible in order to make the business case economical. For this reason, in many cases, the customer or user is supposed to do the first installation on his own in order to start at least a basic package of functions. The challenge for manufacturers is to develop on the one hand systems to meet all the demands of business customers such as function and operation, whilst on the other hand, the systems have to have an easy installation, so that no external service is needed.

As a result of this, fully automatic provisioning is partially deployed where the user only has to cable the system correctly. However, in many cases, manual intervention or at least starting an automatism provided by the carrier is necessary. In this context, IT or rather system security should not be neglected, ensuring that infrastructure is not vulnerable.

Teldat, as a manufacturer in the telecommunications and IT market, has attracted Germany’s largest carrier as a customer. For this client, we provide both approaches: a rather easy and user-friendly first installation solution, as well as a reliable and state-of-the-art IT security solution. In our next blog entry, we will look further into the challenges that we face, as an IT and telecommunication manufacturer.


Getting going!!

sdxcentralNow our Christmas holidays are over (which we hope all our readers thoroughly enjoyed), the moment to begin once more is upon us. It’s possible that many people at this time of year experience a certain anxiety when confronting blank sheets of paper and the inevitable doubts about the future. Particularly so if you had a good 2016 or, at least, a better year than the previous one. In Teldat, however, this anxiety translates into contained expectation for an interesting and innovative year to come for our product ranges and organization. 

In previous posts, we have discussed our new line of SD-WAN solutions, which, according to accredited analyst reports such as that of SdxCentral have placed Teldat as one of the best in this field. Our consolidation of this position is one of our main objectives for 2017. We’ve also spoken about the vectors needed to transform companies, which are essential in order to meet the demands of customers and key survival factors. Even more so in a business segment as innovative and dynamic as technology. As previously stated, these vectors are three: Objectives, to indicate direction; Consistency in execution, to achieve the goals set and, of course, the right People to make this possible.

Teldat has already set its goals clearly at the beginning of January 2017 and has an extraordinary team of people capable of carrying them out. Therefore, any anxious feeling is replaced by an intense desire to get to work and ensure that 2017 is as good as it promises to be. We wish the same for all our friends and customers.

3, 2, 1…..  GO!

The start of a new era

Imagen Post NavidadAt the end of 2015, I remember saying that it had been a very special year for Teldat, as we celebrated our company’s 30th Anniversary. How from a simple technological startup we had become one of the European market leaders in advanced corporate communication platforms. However, 2016 has been as if our 31st year in business, has meant the opening of a totally new era, and indeed it has been so, with Teldat’s launch of SD-WAN!

It is clear that SD-WAN is going to mean a huge change in the market and Teldat has already prepared itself for what our clients and the market in general is going to request in 2017 and beyond. CTO’s have seen that with companies becoming continuously more global, how they need to organize their information technology and networks needs to change. Part of this change will definitely need to be managed with the SD-WAN concept.

Apart from the new era of SD-WAN, there have been many other interesting technologies in which Teldat has been involved in and our followers on our blog and other social networks, have been able to keep track of this. On Linkedin just a week ago we reached the figure of 4.000 followers. A huge increase in just a few years. Perhaps our traditional and new followers have been interested in the amount of bloggers that we have from our R&D department, who have a totally different flavor when writing, to anyone from a commercial or marketing environment.

Indeed, on Linkedin, our followers are able to follow our blog posts and all those events in which we participate, via our Flickr photo albums. It’s always pleasant to put a face to some of the Teldat team members.

We participated in many important events over the year 2016. To mention just a few there was, EUW and EUTC for smart grids, this year in Frankfurt, Trainscomms and BBWF, in London, as well as, of course, the SDWAN summit in Paris.

To end this year, we want to thank all of our readers for their loyalty and interest, as well as welcoming all new followers who have joined our communication channels this year.

We especially want to wish everyone -those of you who read us occasionally and all of our customers and friends- a very merry Christmas, and may 2017 and beyond prove to be as interesting as it is forecasted.




Not all Transformations are Digital

digital transformationRecently, regardless of where you look, you’ll find features on Digital Transformation. Digital or physical blogs (including this one) and magazines are full of articles on the digitization of companies, the advantages, drawbacks and risks and the most efficient way to undertake this procedure. And this occasionally leads us to lose sight of the main issue: Digital Transformation involves a number of key technological tools that only make sense if the organization has a profitable business model with defined procedures and is geared to today’s needs. Anything else sets a company up to fail disastrously: Digital Transformation would be more likely to reveal weaknesses in working models and processes that, if not put right, will cause more problems than it solves.

In these hectic times, company transformation is a given, not a choice. The world is moving and changing at an ever-increasing pace as business managers well know. Customers, like competitors, also perceive and understand this. Companies unable, or unwilling, to recognize coming changes and adapt are unlikely to succeed. Nothing new of course, except for two things: the speed and extent of said changes are greater than ever. We should bear in mind that, while many enterprises seem totally focused on Digital Transformation, it may be as well for other adjustments to take place first.

There are various factors that strongly influence a successful outcome to remodeling company processes:

  • Target: What does the business want to become? To achieve? Why is this transformation necessary? The aim behind it is to give companies the long-term ability to adapt to new needs and features in their field, and increase their overall competitiveness. 
  •  Personnel: In any given company, employees can hinder the chances of success if they don’t understand, accept, or even consider it feasible. Regardless of the time and resources that may have been poured in, resistance to change is perennially ingrained in all companies. That’s why it’s so important to consider the makeup of the personnel and provide the training and awareness programs required for workers to become the true drivers of change.
  • Consistency: This is intrinsically linked to the target and involves keeping true to your strategy in order to achieve it. Problems arise when your objective changes (which, in addition to additional expenses, could also cost you your customers and other players in the market), or you’re constantly changing your strategy to achieve said goal. The latter may be even more damaging than the first, as it generally makes you lose credibility within the organization and demotivates or disgruntles employees, who may start looking for other jobs – or, even worse, stay!

For a company that devotes itself to technology, as is Teldat, the process of transformation must be constant and continuous. Otherwise, to keep operating in a market as demanding as this for over 30 years would have been impossible. As for the definition of targets, our transformations are linked to significant modifications in our technology and business model (i.e., focusing on new product lines dedicated to software defined networks and on foreseeable market changes where we are already at work). Regarding our personnel; many young and enthusiastic people have joined Teldat over this last year. They are offering new and exciting perspectives on how to do things, which fully compliment the experience of our older hands and greatly favor internal changes.

And the consistency of our objective and strategy (given the enormity of transforming corporate WAN networks) is something that will become very evident to all our customers and followers in the following months.

Software defined networking solutions in remote offices

sofware defined networkToday, software-defined network technologies (SDN) can be applied to many more situations than initially thought (i.e., data processing centers) and are being used in the field of WAN to bring, over and above virtualization, resource optimization, flexibility and dynamism to the connectivity services for customers.

This new technology, known as SD-WAN, allows the user to get rid of access resources and forget about complex configuration commands and interfaces in devices that are part of the network. The customer ends up with a virtual network over which he/she can intuitively control the monitoring and operation of the necessary applications/services.

SD-WAN is a very useful solution for remote offices that need an Internet connection, or want to be able to connect to their data center, despite network intelligence stopping at the access equipment (known as “Edges” in SD-WAN).

An office often requires to be able to connect to external networks, as well as to internal LAN and WLAN connectivity services. Given the way WLAN has evolved (offering safety, capacity and availability), many customers are going for wireless offices and limiting the use of cable access to communications equipment or local servers.

It is reasonable to expect the advantages of SD-WAN networks to go beyond the edge border and ensure the correct operation of the customer’s virtual network from the user terminal itself. To be able to do this, the intelligence and abstraction provided by an SD network must reach office switches and access points. Here is where we started thinking about an SD network for LAN and WLAN.

Up till now, the customer’s WAN and LAN/WLAN have always been treated as two separate networks. From a service point of view, there are many elements that validate this distinction:

·   WAN networks are sometimes unpredictable, while LAN/WLAN operation is often clearly delimited.

·   WAN networks become less safe as accesses grow more public, while LAN/WLAN is equipped with default security mechanisms (even at layer 2).

·   WAN networks have limited bandwidth, jitter, packet loss and latency problems, while in LAN/WLAN these aren’t so common.

Per this analysis, it may seem that the “SD” concept is not applicable to office LAN/WLAN networks. However, this is not the case; if most of the office traffic comes from/is sent outside, device configuration must be consistent with the services defined in the SD-WAN network.

In this type of environment, the customer’s virtual network and global service rest upon two different network administrators (WAN & LAN/WLAN). They use up more technical, material and human resources, which hinders troubleshooting operations, network deployment activities, etc. In short, the user has the disadvantage of working with duplicated processes.

Now the time has come to analyze whether the setup of a top layer service should be transparent to all access equipment (up to the user terminal). An embedded SD network (WAN+LAN+WLAN) would allow for service policies to be distributed in a more coherent manner, so a remote office and its components are treated as a single logical entity that can be easily deployed and replicated.

As always, Teldat strives to come up with innovative solutions. We believe that the impact caused by the deployment of SD solutions will transcend “WAN” access and incorporate all other connection technologies.

The Postman always rings twice

wifi for hotelsProviding a wireless LAN for guests and customers is mandatory in many economic sectors where various business interests are pursued. In hotels, wireless LAN has been established for a long time. Cafés and system catering try to encourage guests to stay longer by offering wireless LAN and thus increase sales.

However, a simple and open access point for wireless LAN is not suitable for commercial claims and does not meet the country-specific and legal needs. A modern wireless LAN for guests and customers should have a login page which appears automatically for registration and can also have advertising. There are numerous registration methods, such as simply confirming the terms and conditions, a ticket system that requires a fee or using social media, e. g. facebook or twitter. Nevertheless, all registration methods should limit the access to the wireless LAN for a certain time in order to prevent illegal permanent use.

In case one of the guests uses the wireless LAN for illegal downloads, the person who offers the Wi-Fi to guests and customers can be held liable in some countries. Therefore, a Hotspot solution should always provide the option to route the whole customer’s traffic to an Internet service provider.

Taking a closer look at the market, a wide range of Hotspot solutions is available. On the one hand, there are professional solutions for hotels which require corresponding hardware costs and complex installation. An IT specialist installs and starts the system on site and customizes it to the clients’ needs. On the other hand, there are systems based on access points from the consumer market and Cloud solutions. These systems are usually limited to one access point and are not extendable. Therefore, these products cannot provide a solution for chain stores with corresponding claims according to functionality and liability.

Large chains have further requirements for a perfect HotSpot solution. Apart from the necessary access point no further hardware should be needed and the Internet access router already in use should keep on operating. Furthermore, especially for large chains, it is important to choose an expandable system without difficulty to ensure radio coverage in the whole building. It is important to guarantee smooth roaming and thus allowing users to move freely within the building without any new login. Last but not least, the installation should be possible without any technical experts in order to keep the costs in each branch office low. Ideally, the required access point is sent simply by mail to the branch office and the branch manager connects the access point to a free Ethernet port of the Internet access router. The access point automatically registers to the central Cloud management system and receives its individual Hotspot configuration via a safe Internet connection.

Teldat as a manufacturer of access points and provider of wireless LAN solutions offers also Cloud solutions as described above.


There’s no need to look out of the train window anymore

renfeA few weeks ago Renfe (Spanish train operator) launched their onboard entertainment platform for high speed trains called PlayRenfe. They have taken onboard Wi-Fi for passengers a huge step further with this platform that allows travelers to connect to a fast train’s Wireless LAN, using their own devices; tablets, PC’s, or Smart phones. Once connected passengers can watch films, series, read books, listen to music or play games. A huge difference from just getting Wi-Fi to read your emails.

However, if one surfs the web, we can see that there are some other train operators across the globe who work along this line of building online entertainment platforms on a trains’ Wi-Fi to give passengers an added value service, which hugely differentiates a trip with this service or without. That’s why we can call this, developing a customer experience, to build client loyalty making sure they will want to repeat traveling with one specific company or mode of transport and not any other one.

So independently of the train operator, what can an onboard entertainment offer:

  • A list of films so you watch exactly the film or type of film you want to.
  • TV shows, if you don’t want to watch something as long as a film.
  • Live sports events. Never miss a sports event because you’re traveling or avoid having to rearrange a trip so you don’t miss, the event. I’m sure that’s happened to more than one of us.
  • Onboard online games. Being on the train’s platform, the cost saving in this case can be considerable, especially if the passenger is on roaming!
  • Internet calls. Now that we’ve previously mentioned roaming, an enormous added value that clients can have is being able to make Internet calls.

Apart from entertainment itself, the train operator can offer passengers on the platform many other aspects which their clients will value:

  • Online shopping. Especially purchasing articles or services closely related to a client’s trip or whatever is sold onboard.
  • Travel agency. Being able to buy touristic guides, or even get last minute hotels is a huge added value for traveling passengers.

Also, as far as hardware is concerned, these type of platforms permit the use of your own devices. Everyone prefers using their own device for ease, comfort and it makes everything so much quicker.

All the above mentioned issues, are all added value items focused towards the customer experience, but the train operator can also gain added value by having their customers connected. Via the use of online advertising and social media, certain information can be directed to specific passenger segments. 

However, achieving this customer experience is not just about designing and running an entertainment platform on a train. Although the entertainment platform is not a straight forward task, perhaps one of the most complex issues is setting up a solid communications platform to run everything on. Indeed, placing online communications on any vehicle is not easy, but if you consider a high speed train, the solution is somewhat more complex, due to speed, areas which need to covered (tunnels, remote terrain…) etc. So apart from setting up a Wi-Fi system according to high speed train requirements, Internet connectivity has to be kept constantly maintained on a train traveling at up to 300km/h.

However complex this may seem, it is totally possible and this has all been achieved as we saw at the beginning of the article and indeed Teldat participated in the communications of the Renfe project. Teldat is experienced in this field, both for train communication platforms and road vehicle communication platforms.


SD-WAN and security implications –Part 2


sd-wan securityIn my last blog, I wrote about the origins of SD-WAN and its benefits. However, these advantages are certainly not without their challengers and threats, which all interested companies should consider when analyzing the various options offered by the market.

From a security point of view, the main threats arising have to do with the use of unprotected residential broadband networks. Unlike what happened with traditional corporate WAN networks, where services such as MPLS created virtual private networks that were unreachable from the Internet, these residential broadband networks, connect SD-WAN branches directly to Internet.

Therefore, there are several additional security risks for SD-WAN networks versus MPLS networks.:

  • Firstly, traffic running over Internet is, by its very nature, unsafe. It requires encryption to avoid being inspected or even replaced by third parties.  All SD-WAN solutions currently on the market use VPN technologies to create an ‘overlay’ (virtual WAN net) over the physical network. However, not all VPN technologies are the same and these differences can be seen in the quality of authentication or encryption in proprietor VPN mechanisms.

We can also look at theTrack records of individual proprietor mechanisms and their benchmarks (SD-WAN is still a very new technology) to analyze robustness and scalability. These two factors have a significant impact on both launching and operating costs.

  • Secondly, and perhaps more importantly than the fact that our corporate traffic can be seen in the Internet, is having SD-WAN offering online access to corporate datacenters to anyone who can mimic a branch SD-WAN terminator. As most residential broadband Internet connections use dynamic IP (unknown a priori), SD-WAN solutions are designed to operate in this connectivity environment using dynamic IP addressing. Since all Internet lines are initially valid to connect to a corporate network, anyone who can simulate, or has an SD-WAN terminal can, in theory, connect to a main corporate net, with all the permissions and passwords of a legitimate user.  The greatest risk coming from SD-WAN is the consequences of an original SD-WAN terminal being stolen from an office (or remote point), potentially allowing said thief to access the corporate network.  This doesn’t happen in MPLS nets, as access to central systems requires using a particular WAN MPLS line per office. This means a budding MPLS router thief can’t access the network by connecting the router to any broadband network. Thus, SD-WAN solutions must be equipped with antitheft mechanisms for routers, which detect if they are used out of branch environments.

A threat requiring protection in this category is the reset button (found on most communication equipment), which restores factory settings and may be used by a hacker to connect an SD-WAN terminal to a central network from an unauthorized point, simulating an initial set up.

  • A third risk, closely linked to the above, is the secure installation of SD-WAN terminators in authorized locations. The intrinsic independence of SD-WAN with respect to the network provider/s makes the use of zero touch provisioning mechanisms (ZTP) commonplace and easy, as most SD-WAN solutions on the market come pre-equipped.  Remote SD-WAN terminators can be sent via ordinary mail for example, and be installed at the corresponding corporate offices by the staff (forestalling the need for specialized technical personnel and/or training). All that’s needed is to unpack the device and connect it to the existing routers and devices on the local office network (LAN) or LAN switch.

SD-WAN solutions must have security mechanisms at startup (or initial installation) at the branch office. Bidirectional safe authentication is needed to cover the remote SD-WAN terminator to the central point and back again. There are many different products aimed at resolving this risk and allowing ZTP. These include security tokens through USB, smartphone apps, emails or SMS with authentication credentials etc.  Said mutual authentication should, of course, be kept for successive connections, not just for the first (installation). Successive connections shouldn’t require additional ZTP. While human intervention is not necessary at the remote point, some type of manual validation is used, or specified (at the central point) and a SD-WAN terminator should at least save connection credentials for a certain length of time. And it’s at this point where antitheft mechanisms should come into play.

  • Another risk to corporate traffic is the security of communication protocols or mechanisms between a remote SD-WAN terminator and a central management system, or controller, and should be analyzed through SDN native terminology. Said communication channel must also be secure (it’s quite common, or at least possible, for a controller to reside in a public cloud, or management traffic to run over Internet). If you use a controller in a multi-tenant public cloud topology (i.e. shared), security behind reclaiming devices in an initial set up also deserves attention. At first glance, a remote SD-WAN terminator could belong to any customer sharing the public cloud. However, only the customer identified as legitimate should be able to claim it.

In my previous blog, I mentioned that SD-WAN could be used in traditional branch offices as well as in any corporate network worth connecting and gave M2M and transport as examples. Once again, the risks we’ve already looked at need not only to be analyzed but widened to cover the nuances of these out of office settings. Said sectors typically use 4G technology (requiring SIM cards) and so pose an additional security challenge (theft or the intentional blocking of SIMs).

SD-WAN is a promising technology that, despite not being fully developed, has been designed to help companies use Internet broadband networks safely. This brings a lot of corporate advantages when compared to the traditional use of MPLS networks. While risks from Internet use are inherent to SD-WAN, a great deal of work is being put into critical safety and design features.

SD-WAN and security implications – Part 1

SD-WANI have written an article on SD-WAN for Seguritecnia, an online and print magazine that is very present in the private security sector in Spain. In said article, I explained the concept of SD-WAN and the security implications associated to this technology (as befits a magazine that focuses on safety).
Given the enormous interest in SD-WAN, I decided to give our blog readers the opportunity of perusing the contents of said article. In addition, and since Teldat’s blog is available both in English and in Spanish, our Anglophone followers can also access the document. The content of this article has been divided into two blog entries. The first is an introduction to the SD-WAN concept and how it differs from more traditional WANs. Next week, in a new blog entry, I’ll be writing on topics relative to security over this communication channel. I hope both entries prove interesting!
Virtualization phenomena is fast reaching infrastructures and communication networks. After its astounding success in information technology, where it’s use has made systems to support social media and the general cloud phenomenon possible, virtualization is beginning to be applied to communication networks. The aim is to obtain the same advantages in availability, flexibility, dynamism and cost, given by information systems in datacenters and cloud, and apply these to the world of communications.
Within the scope of network virtualization, two technologies have grown strongly, despite not being fully developed as yet, and threaten to permanently change the panorama. These are SDN (software-designed networks) and NFV (network functions virtualization).
SDN appeared in datacenters, with the idea of applying virtualization advantages in a datacenter local network to interconnect server racks. While system virtualization allowed for virtual machines to be rapidly integrated in datacenter services, creating local networks that connected these virtual machines proved to be a far more tedious and error-prone process.
Today, SDN has left datacenters behind and reached WAN. This, in combination with some other data communication technologies, is now known as SD-WAN. The enormous interest this sparks is no coincidence, as it resolves many of the problems companies were finding when designing and operating their WAN networks (for instance, high costs or lack of dynamism when adapting to business requirements). SD-WAN abstracts the physical WAN transport network and creates a virtual internet over it, regardless of the number, type or ISP of each WAN connection in a branch office. In practical terms, you can use SD-WAN to increase or replace a corporate MPL network with one or various residential broadband links, such as ADSL, FTTH or 4G, operating in coordination with each other. Traffic distribution over the various links depends on business or application criteria (more so than conventional IP routing rules) and management and adaption is simpler and more dynamic than in traditional networks.
It’s true, while reading this article (and others), that SD-WAN certainly has a place in the corporate world, not only in traditional branch offices but in any corporate network worth connecting, office or not, even if it only has a single WAN access. Examples of this can be found in M2M (such as kiosks or standalone points) as well as in on-board communication systems for buses, armored vehicles, police cars, etc.
In the following week, I’ll be writing about security implications and what those concepts mean in SD-WAN.
In Teldat, we believe SD-WAN technology will revolutionize the field of corporate communications in the coming years and WAN will soon become “SD-WAN”.

How to “compile” a compiler

compiladorThe compiler is a key element in developing software as it translates instructions given in one programming language (somewhat close to natural language) into something a computer can understand: machine language, made up of ones and zeros, which, in turn, is another abstraction to encode different voltages for an electrical signal.

Despite its importance, and omnipresence, doubts may arise regarding its nature. What language is used to write a compiler? How do you compile a compiler? Can a C compiler be written in C? These three questions are closely inter-related making them impossible to answer individually and, regardless of appearances, are not the modern version of the chicken and the egg! Let’s see why.

What language is used to write a compiler

To answer this, we need to look back to the beginnings of computer science. It was in 1952 when Grace Hopper, one of the most influential contributors to informatics, wrote the first compiler: the A-0 system. She  (to whom we owe the Word bug from the famous Mark I anecdote) put together subroutines, used over the years, into machine language and on a tape associated to a numeric code. The A-0 system could translate mathematical symbolic codes to machine language, using said codes, by searching through the tape for the corresponding subroutines.

Although this corresponds more to the idea of a linker or loader, the A-0 system is considered to be the first ever compiler.  Initially, this was done manually: someone had to actually convert instructions, which existed in a language totally alien to a computer (such as mathematical symbols), into binary.

As computing evolved and became more and more complex, instructions were entered in an assembler and directly mapped to machine language instructions, to be directly executed by a processor.

How do you compile a compiler? Can a C compiler be written in C?

A very simple compiler can be written from an assembler and machine code. Once you have a software that is able to translate something into binary instructions, you can use the original compiler to write a more sophisticated one (then use a second further refined one to write a third and so on). This iterative process of making a tool from a simpler version is known as bootstrapping. The something could be instructions written in the same programming language the compiler uses, creating new self-hosting. Gcc, one of the most popular C compilers, was built using this technique.

That said, there are a great many languages available with their respective compilers, which allow us to skip the first step of using  the assembler and machine code.

The following figure shows a very simple example of bootstrapping.  Suppose we invent a new language called T. To compile it, we need to write a compiler in another language, C for example (Tcompiler_c.c). By using an existing C compiler to compile Tcompiler_c.c, we can generate an executable Tcompiler_c. Subsequently, we can write a new T compiler, this time however, using its own language (Tcompiler_t.t). As we already have a program capable of compiling this, Tcompiler_c, we can use it to gain a new compiler, compiled from its own source code. This final step can be repeated as often as required to produce an ever more powerful versión.


Compiler tools continue to evolve to this very day.  Codes, executed in processors, partly depend on them to achieve optimum performance and efficiency. Thus, the integrated use of compilers and their theoretical understanding, which lead to consistently enhanced quality embedded software, are a fundamental part of Teldat.